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Full text of "Pennsylvania Museum Bulletin. Number 48, October 1914"

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Entered August 27, 1903, at Philadelphia. Pa., as Second-Class Matter, under Act of Congress of July 16. 1894. 



PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 



Boart) of tTrustees 

The Governor of the State, Ex-Of. The Mayor of the City, Ex-Of. 

Mrs. Rudolph Blankenburg Thomas Skelton Harrison Theodore C. Search 

Charles Bond John Story Jenks Edgar V. Seeler 

James Butterworth John H. McFadden Mrs. C. Shillard Smith 

John G. Carrhth John D. McIlhenny Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott 

Harrington Fitzgerald Mrs. Arthur V. Meigs Edward T. Stotesbury 

John Gribbel John T. Morris James F. Sullivan 

Charles H. Harding John W. Pepper William Wood 

©Wicers 

THEODORE C. SEARCH, President 
JOHN STORY JENKS, 



JOHN G. CARRUTH, ■ V^^'-P'^'id'^^' 
JAMES BUTTERWORTH, Treasurer 
EDWIN ATLEE BARBER, Secretary 
LESLIE W. MILLER, Principal of the School 



EDWIN ATLEE BARBER, Editor 



Bulletin 

JTor ©ctober, Ulinctcen 1Hunt)rcb an^ ifourteen 
CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Enamels on Metal— Japanese, bj' Edwin A. Barber 49 

Lacquered and Painted Furniture, by Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson ... 52 

Recent Acquisitions 58 

Notes 63 

Accessions 66 

General Information 67 



BULLETIN 

OF 

THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

OCTOBER. 1914 TWELFTH YEAR Number 48 

ENAMELS ON METAL 

JAPANESE 

The art of enameling on metal appears to have been introduced into Japan 
from China toward the end of the sixteenth century. The earliest pieces of 
Japanese enamels which have come do^vn to us show a marked similarity in 
coloring, design and treatment to the Chinese works of the Ming Dynasty. 
The cloisonne enamels of Japan are of three distinct \^arieties, as follows: 
I. Early Period (previous to the eighteenth century). 
IL Middle Period (eighteenth century) . 

(a) With bound rims. 

(b) With unbound rims. 

III. Modern (late nineteenth century). 
It is only wdthin a comparatively few years that the enamels of Japan 
have attracted the attention of western collectors, and they have not yet been 
studied sufficiently to permit of their being di^'ided into distinct schools, to 
which future investigations will probably show they belong. 

I. Early Period 

The enamels of this period, which is believed to have practically extended 
through the seventeenth centurj^ are applied to beaten copper of great thin- 
ness. Bowls and deep dishes are forms most commonh' found. The execution 
is coarse but ^dgorous and effective. The decorative designs are conventional 
and frequently include figures of animals, fishes and birds. These productions 
reveal more or less of the Chinese influence in coloring and treatment. A 
striking characteristic of the enamels of the Early and Middle Periods is the 
frequent employment of green grounds. 

II. Middle Period 

The enamel work of the eighteenth century is distinguished by the light 
weight of the copper foundation, which sometimes does not exceed one twenty- 
fourth to one-sixteenth of an inch in thickness. The decorations are of great 
deKcacy and exactitude, a favorite style of treatment being the employment 



t 



50 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 




Cloisonne Enamels 
Japanese, Early Period 



of geometrical, plaid and diaper patterns, frequently consisting of medallions 
of circular and other shapes, the grotmd being divided up into numerous 
irregular spaces, each one enameled in a different pattern. Frequently both 
sides of the metal are decorated in this manner. The forms of vessels are often 
ungainl}^ and awkward, and the handles of vases, in the shape of semi-circles 
or trunks of elephants, frequently present an incongruous appearance. The 
work of this period, however, marked the highest development of the art of 
enameling in Japan, all traces of Chinese influence having disappeared. 
Among the decorations are often found the kiri and kiku crests or badges of 
the imperial family. The kiri crest is composed of three leaves from which 
rise three flowers of the kiri tree. The kiku insignia is a conventionalized 
rendering of the chrysanthemum flower, consisting of a small circle surrounded 

usually by sixteen lobes, 
but sometimes numbering 
more or less, arranged in a 
circle. These devices are 
vised in a variety' of modi- 
fied forms. Sometimics they 
are placed in the ground- 
work, but more often occupy 
a conspicuous position as 
central decorations of fan- 
shaped or other medallions. 
Among the chimerical ani- 
mal forms, the ho ho bird, 
the dragon and the kirin 
Cloisonne Enamels figure most frequently. The 

Japanese, Middle Period most common shape of the 




BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



51 



vases of this period is oviform with a trumpet-shaped top, standing on a base of 
inverted trumpet- or bowl-form, or on three or four spreading flange-shaped feet. 
The ground work of Japanese enamels of the Middle Period is of numerous 
varieties of geometrical diaper patterns formed by metal cloisons, such as the 
"checker-board," the "cube," the "shuttle," the "scale," etc. The "shuttle" 
design consists of small boat-shaped ornaments disposed in regular rows. The 
"scale" pattern is composed of sem.i-circular cloisons arranged like the scales 




Cloisonne Enamels 
J.-^p.^NESE, Middle Period 

of a fish. The "cube" diaper is made up of rhomboidal or square figures repre- 
senting cubical blocks seen in perspective. There are many other ground 
patterns composed of minute circles, stars, rhombs, flowerets, dots and curls. 

III. Modern Period 

A. Cloisonne Enamels on Porcelain 

It was probably not until about the middle of the nineteenth century 

that cloisonne enameling was applied to pottery and porcelain by Japanese 

artists. The earliest attempts were in imitation of the older enameling upon 



I 



52 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

copper, in which green grounds were frequently used. In more recent years, 
this branch of the art has been extensively developed, and at the present time 
many examples of cloisonne porcelain are to be found in public and private 
collections. The enamels are necessarily softer than those used upon metal 
bases, being fired at a lower temperature, and they lack the brilliant polish of 
some of the older works. 

B . Cloisonne Enamels on Copper 

At Yokohama, at Kioto and in the Province of Owari, enameling on 
copper has been carried on since the middle of the nineteenth century. These 
modem enamels are coarse and lack the delicacj' of the older wares. The 
colors are brilliant — usually bright turquoise, yellow, brown and black. The 
metal base is thicker and heavier and frequently cast. 

C. Translucent Enamels on Metal 

Another variety of enamel of recent times is that in which transparent 
pastes are used. Circular dishes are painted with buff -colored grounds and 
decorated with floral designs and inscriptions in gold and other lacquers. 

D. Painted Enamels 

During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, certain Japanese 
artists developed the painting of plain enamel to a high degree of perfection. 
Instead of entirely covering the surface with patterns of enamel work, they 
went to the other extreme by painting on the white or delicately tinted ground 
a flying stork, a wild goose, a cluster of plant fonns, a simple representation of 
the moon, or a mountain peak. In some instances, metal cloisons were spar- 
ingly used to enclose the ]3ainted designs. Occasionally the wires were intro- 
duced in the colored pictures to emphasize the details, as outlines of the stalks 
of plants or veins of leaves, taking the place of gilding in the decorations. 

An enormous vase of this character in the Museum collection was pur- 
chased at the St. Louis Exposition in 1894. It measures thirty-nine inches in 
height, without the stand, and is covered with enamel which gradually changes 
from a pale buff tint below to terra cotta above. On one side is a painted 
cluster of foliage, am.ong which do^•es of life-size, in natural colors, are perched. 

E. A. B. 



LACQUERED AND PAINTED FURNITURE 

Mrs. Edward T. Stotesbury has presented to the Pcnnsyh-ania Museum 
and School of Industrial Art two important pieces of furniture, purchased by 
her in Venice, that illustrate an art technique hitherto unrepresented in the 
collections therein stored. 

One of the pieces is a "commode" or chest of three drawers, four feet 
long by two feet ten inches in width and two feet ten inches in height, that 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



53 



may go back to the early part of the eighteenth century, and probably is an 
imitation of a French model. It is of red varnish imitating red Chinese lacquer 
with raised gilt decoration of Chinese figures and rococo frame-like edges, 
separating the red varnished center of the top from a much worn gilt outer 
border. The legs, owing to the swelled outline of the body of the chest of 
which they are the continuation, according to the style of the Louis XV period, 
suggest the Cabriole order, although they themselves are slender and out- 
wardly curved. 




Louis XV "Commode" ix Imitation Red .\nd Gilt Chinese Lacquer, 

WITH Raised Chinese Gilt Figures 

Eighteenth Century 

Gift of Mrs. Edward T. Stotesbury 



It will be remembered that after the Dutch, in the seventeenth century, 
penetrated Java and Japan, they brought back with them the fashion of 
orientalistic art, known to decorators as "Chinoiseries." At first they imported 
Chinese and Japanese lacquers; and then, the taste for these things having 
become popularized, the European cabinet makers fell to imitating them. 
Already at the close of the seventeenth century were produced in Paris, under 



54 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 




Wardrobe of Painted Varnished Wood 

Late Eighteenth Century. Bought in Venice 

Gift of Mrs. Edward T. Stotesbury 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 55 

the name of "style or fashion of Chinese work," pieces of varnished furniture. 
The "Livre Commode" of 1691 mentioned the names of the Langlois, father 
and son, of des Essarts, and of Paty, who at that date had acquired a reputa- 
tion for that sort of work. In 1713 the "Sieur Dagly" from Liege had by 
letters patent obtained the right to use certain lacquers of which he claimed to 
be the inventor. Others were Pierre de Newmaison, who painted carriages and 
did altar work "after the way of China." Pierre Leroyer, 1752; Antoine 
Igou, 1752; Charles Louis Gervaise, 1790; and others. 

But the rage for such Chinese reproductions culminated at the beginning 
of the eighteenth century. A splendid fete was given on January 7, 1700, 
when Louis XIV was carried in a palanquin and preceded by some thirty 
Chinese singers and players on instruments. Another similar fete was given by 
Monsieur le Prince on the 12th for the Duchesse de Bourgogne.' Wall panel- 
ings still attest the fad. At Chantilh', walls, furniture, screens and tables 
reproduce ' ' Chinoiseries . ' ' 

A red painted and varnished piece of furniture of the desk book-case and 
drawers combination type, of the time of Queen Anne, is reproduced in the 
Connoisseur for May last. Of course cabinet makers of various nations, while 
aiming more or less at the same thing, achie%fed different results. The fashion 
of painted furniture under \'amish reached its highest artistic point in France 
with the Martins and the famous " vemis-Martin " work.- 

Innumerable, however, are the notes in the inventories of the first half of 
the eighteenth century, of furniture in imitation Chinese lacquer. That of 
Louis Hanique, Councillor of the Hostel de Ville, 1720, tells of a small toilette 
mirror of eighteen inches more or less within its beveled edges, of "vemis 
Rougeret" or "fagon de la Chine." Havard mentions, beside those already 
quoted, seven or more makers of ^'amished furniture. While there were four 
Martins, Havard thinks it unsafe to attribute to them all the furniture of 
that period. 

The lines of the comm^ode before us lead one to the belief that it is imitated 
from the French. In this connection Lady Dillon (p. 187) quotes approvingly 
Dr. Dohme, who remarks, "La commode Allemande est plus pansue, son 
mouvement est plus charge, les contours sont plus tendus en tous sens. La 
commode frangaise est plus svelte, d'une forme plus retenue, d'un contour plus 
leger et jamais enfle." Our specimen ob\'iously belongs to the first-mentioned 
class. Such pieces were usualh' finished with ormolu mountings and it is clear 
that those belonging to the commode were removed, as the places where the 
handles were fitted are plainly notable. 

The Martins, in France, had three factories already in business in 1724-30. 
They were granted a monopoly for making ' ' all sorts of work in relief of China 
and Japan," etc. They made furniture of black or red varnish with raised gold 
decorations. Alexander Martin styled himself purveyor to the King of 
Prussia. He decorated Sans Souci. And the German less graceful industry 
supplied many imitations. Even in Paris, German cabinet makers like Ront- 
gen (1743-1807) preser\'-ed some of the traits of their own land. Wille men- 

1 See letter XXIst of Madame du Deffand to Horace Walpole. 
•Compare with A. de Champeaxix, "Le Meuble;" Chapter on "Les Peintres Vernisseurs." p. 183. 



56 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

tions the latter in his journal under date August 30, 1774. Yet Rontgen 
belonged to the Paris corporation of Master Cabinet Makers, though born at 
Neuwied. 

It was about 1760 that furniture of the "vernis Martin style," in which 
the whole piece was decorated instead of being merely adorned with panels, 
became the rage and spread over Western Europe. The Chinese idea was 
abandoned and scenes of daily life, landscapes, and flowers were used in the 
taste of the period. 

To the earlier style must be referred the "commode" given by Mrs. Stotes- 
bury, who purchased it in Venice. It clearly comes under the head of imitation 
red and gold Chinese lacquer. The technique is especially interesting as the 
decoration of imitation lacquer with its low relief gilt figures and decorations is 
applied on a surface of Carton-pierre or Carton-pate, described by Havard as 
a "Composition of pasteboard, paste, gelatine or glue, and chalk which, when 
soft, lends itself to moulding and in drying, acquires a great resistance and a 
sufficient solidity." This combined relief and flat process is of gesso, in which 
the raised plaster composition is painted or gilt as in our specimen.^ 

This "Carton-pate" in decorative use is ancient. In the royal accounts 
of 1562, under the rubric "Fontainebleau," is found an entr}^ for work done 
in "papier-pile," a mixture of resin-pitch which is strongly suggestive of the 
"Carton-pierre." In the eighteenth century it was used for all kinds of orna- 
ments and even for portraits. This composition is, of course, the direct 
descendant of the Italian "Gesso duro" of the Italian mediaeval artists. In 
England, the Adam brothers adopted it for delicate raised decoration and made 
such great use of it that for flat surfaces in which, as in Mrs. Stotesbury's 
"commode," it was used for relief effects, that it has become identified with 
their names. 

Among other English cabinet makers who adopted the painted and ^^ar- 
nished furniture were Hepplewhite and Sheraton. They employed the same 
artists as Adam. The English school made a specialty of painted decorated 
furniture about 1770 and later. The varnish paint used was mixed with tur- 
pentine.- The Duke of Norfolk has a fine specimen of such a "commode," 
the panels of which are painted by Angelica Kauffmann. All this English 
furniture, however, dates from a period subsequent to Adam's travels in Italy, 
i. e.. 1760, whence he brought back the use of carton-pierre and papier-mache, 
over which the same glutinous preparation known as "Japan" and sin'mlating 
lacquer was applied. 

In France, until 1760, lacquer work was in imitation of Chinese designs, 
such as the piece now under discussion.'* The n:ost artistic examples of which 
were, like our specimen, on gesso or pietra dura, on which raised compositions 
of Chinese designs are painted or gilt and lacquered. 

From the above it would appear that of the pieces purchased in Venice 
and presented to the Museum by Mrs. Stotesbury, the first of imitation red 



' Edwin Foley. "The Book of Decorative Furniture." I, 403. New Yorkr G. P. Putnam & Sons. 

2 See Foley, loc. cil.. II, p. 153. etc., gives on plate XXI a commode and four chairs of the Duke of Norfolk 
now at Arundel Castle. 

"See Foley, loc. cil.. I. 400-414. New York: G. P. Putnam & Sons. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



57 





,:^ 


4. 


^Smr'^^pk 




^^^y^B^Tl' ^ ^^^^BH^P^" 








V.'jHp^.W |HH 


1 




.IB ^^^'i ■^-'•^''f^^w^ 




'^ "'"-•' '^U*'/' '■''^ 




^..^j^a^JS^^-^---^ 



Grotesque Pottery Figure 
Chinese, T'ang Dynasty 



I 



58 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

Chinese lacquer decorated with raised gilt Chinese designs and originally 
supplied with probably ormolu mountings, was made prior to 1760; while the 
wardrobe is of a considerably later period. 

While it is plain that a coat of chalky composition was spread as a priming 
over the rough surface of the wood before the painting under varnish was done, 
this preparation is ver}- much thinner than in the earlier piece and but for its 
whiteness showing in split places, would not be suspected. 

The decorations, landscapes and rural scenes on the latter suggest Switzer- 
land or the Tyrol. At least on one is a chalet -like structure. Another edifice 
portrayed on a panel, however, is suggestive of German architecture. But 
such details are not conclusive, for we have seen that artists from various 
localities were employed in the different European art centers to imitate the 
great works of the master craftsm^en. Italians worked for the Adam brothers 
in England while Alexander Martin worked for Potsdam and Berlin, and Ger- 
mans worked in Paris. It is quite plain that the higher art-crafts of the 
eighteenth century were sufficiently widespread to be regarded as m.ore or less 
cosmopolitan. 

S. Y. S. 



RECENT ACQUISITIONS 

Only lately have collectors had their attention called to a peculiar \'ariety 
of Chinese pottery which has appeared in considerable quantities upon the 
market. This ware consists principally of human and grotesque figures, the 
principal characteristic being an exceedingly soft and whitish clay body, more 
or less completely covered with a soft green and deep yellow lead glaze. This 
pottery has been attributed to the T'ang Dynasty (618-906). Through the 
explorations and in\'estigations of Dr. Berthold Laufer, of the Field Museum 
of Natural History, Chicago, much light has been thro'\\'Ti upon these early 
Chinese fabrics. Among the accessions of the past summer is a particularly 
fine example of this ware, consisting of a grotesque standing figure, thirty-one 
inches in height, partially co\"ered with the characteristic green and }'ellowish 
brown glaze, which through great age has become so soft that it can readily 
be scratched with a pin point. The attitude of the figure conveys the impres- 
sion that it originally held in the upraised right hand a thunder-bolt, and it is 
strongly suggestive of the Japanese figures which gxiard the temple gates. 

Another early Chinese example recently acquired, is a potter}' figure of a 
grotesque dog-like animal made of whitish clay, covered with a soft, creamy 
lead glaze, measuring eleven and a half inches in height. 

A characteristic Chinese pillow, of the usual rectangular form, in hard 
stoneware, is among the recent accessions. It is covered wdth a creamy white 
opaque enamel, over which are painted dark brown decorations consisting of 
a lion sporting with ribbons and ball, with boldly painted flowers at the sides. 
In front is an outlined flower, surrounded by leaves in brown. At each side 
is a conventionalized water lily in an irregular medallion, while at the back is 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



59 




a more elaborately painted floral pattern with 
an archaic inscription at each side. Were it 
not for the fact that the Chinese potters are 
not known to have used tin in their glazes, we 
would be inclined to consider this a stannif- 
erous enamel, but it probably belongs to that 
class of glazes peculiar to the far Orient, which 
while strongly resembling tin enamel is feld- 
spathic in its character. Heretofore, pottery of 
this character has been attributed by collectors 
to Korea, but it is now known that such ware 
was produced at Tz'u-Chou in the province of 
Chihli in the Sung dynasty. The most charac- 
teristic variety of this pottery is decorated in 
dark brown, but it was occasionally painted in 
dull blue. In the archaic forms of the pieces, 
peculiar coloring and treatment of ornamenta- 
tion, the ware is strongly suggesti\'e of Korean. 
To just what period of the Sung dynasty, which 
extended from 960 to 1279, this interesting 
piece belongs, it is impossible to determ.ine. 
The pillow measures eleven inches in length. 
Among the most important acquisitions is 
a co\'ered jar of old French stanniferous faience, 
which measures twenty-eight inches in height. 
The peculiar treatment of the decoration and 
the characteristic technique enable us to attri- 
bute it to one of the Nevers potteries of the late seventeenth or early eighteenth 
century. The decoration, painted in purple and blue, reveals the trembly, 
uncertain outlining of the design, which is so characteristic of the earlier work 

of the Nevers potters, as 
seen in their imitations of 
Italian maiolica. The porce- 
lain of China exerted an 
influence upon the work 
of the old French faience 
painters, as it did on the 
early fabrics of all of the 
European potteries. Here 
we have an excellent exam- 
ple of the pseudo-Oriental 
style, whose inspiration was 
derived from the Dutch 
copies of the period, rather 
than from the Chinese 
porcelains themselves. In 
this style, which was 



Grotesque Pottery Figure 
Chinese, Sung Dy.n.\sty 




Stoneware Pillow 
Chinese, Tz'u-Chou Ware, Sung Dynasty 



60 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 




Covered Jar of Stanniferous Faience 

Painted in Blue and Purple in Chinese Style 

Nevers, France, Early Eighteenth Century 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANL\ MUSEUM 



61 



adopted by the Nevers faisr.ciers about 1640, the colors used in the decora- 
tions, — blue, purple, and sometimes yellow and green, — were usually weak and 
curdled in appearance. The border designs strongly suggest the broderis pat- 
terns of the old Rouen faience and porcelain, but are not so carefully and 
accurately drawn. This example is one of the finest of the kind of which we 




Salt-Gl.\zed Stoxe\v.\re B.\rtm.\nn 

Bouffioux, Belgium 

Early Seventeenth Century 

have any knowledge and is a distinctly valuable addition to the Museum's 
important collection of stanniferous faience. 

The collection of salt-glazed stoneware has also been enriched by a fine 
example of brown ware of unusual size, being sixteen and a half inches in 
height, which is attributed to Bouffioux, Belgitmi, and dates from the first half 
of the seventeenth century. The form is what is known in Germany as a 



i 



62 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



Bartmann, or bearded man, and is also known as a Bellarmine or Graybeard. 
The front of the neck is embelHshed with the usual grotesque mask in relief, 
while in front and at each side is a large medallion, or coat of arms, which, with 
the mask, are smeared with blue enamel. The handle at the back is in the 
form of a twisted rope with the characteristic lizard-tail end. The unusual 
size of this piece and its rarity make it a valuable addition to the collection. 




Carved Red Cinnabar Lacquer 

C hinese 

Eighteenth Century 



Several fine pieces of Chinese carved cinnabar lacquer have also been 
obtained by purchase, consisting of a large sectional vase of quadrilateral 
fomi, a peach-shape covered box and a wall vase, all of them belonging to the 
eighteenth century. 

The Bloomfield Moore collection has been increased by a small group of 
Chinese porcelain snuff bottles of the K'ang-hsi and Ch'ien-lung periods. The 
lot includes an example of white porcelain with designs in high relief, two 
painted famille rose bottles, a couple of blue and white pieces, a good specimen 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



63 




Group of Porcelain Snuff Bottles 

Chinese 

K'ang-hsi and Ch'ien-lung Periods 

of Fen-ting, or so-called soft-paste, porcelain, and an interesting bottle with 
yellow glaze and relief design of birds in enamel colors, which bears an apoc- 
ryphal Ch'ing-hua mark. This small collection fills a gap in the case devoted 
to these objects. 

,..w„ E. A. B. 



NOTES 

New Cases. — Two new cases have been constructed during the summ.er, 
one for the collection of old Japanese netsukes of carved wood, the other for 
a remarkable collection of objects of spun glass, made at the Centennial Exhibi- 
tion by the Gillinder Company of Philadelphia and exhibited there. 

Snuff Bottles. — A choice group of Chinese porcelain snuff bottles has 
been 'added to the Bloomfield Moore collectioiT and installed in the case 
devoted to these objects. 

Miniatures. — The collections of miniatures and fans have been hung 
in A-shaped cases, which have been built for them, and covered with green silk 
curtains, to protect them from the light. 



J 



64 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

School Notes. — The holders of the foreign scholarships given by Mrs. 
James Mifflin, Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott and Mr. C. Bumham Squier, spent the 
summer in Europe, chiefly in Italy, the war conditions somewhat interfering 
with their plans during the latter part of the time. 

The work of the young men, Mr. John R. Sinnock, Mr. Parke E. Edwards 
and Mr. Leon W. Corson, was chiefly the inspection and study of the best 
examples of art and monuments in place, and included an unexpected oppor- 
tunity to visit Athens, the return to America being made on a Greek ship, 
the only available vessel by way of the Adriatic. 

The longest period was spent in Florence, where studies were made of the 
illuminated missals and other books in the Laurentian Library; the majolica 
in the Bargello and the Cantagalli collection; the metal work in the Stibbert 
Museum; the Etruscan terra cottas, and the mosaics and marble inlays of 
San Miniato and other churches. 

Mr. Andrade, Mr. Copeland, Mr. Detterer, Mrs. Hatch, Mrs. Marshall, 
Miss Matlock, Miss Nye, Miss Taylor and Miss Weisel, teachers and students 
of the School, also worked along the same or similar lines. The study of 
decorative landscape and the collection of material for composition on Italian 
themes were a part of their efl^ort. These subjects furnished a long range, 
from the simple majesty of the Paestum temples and plains, and the Roman 
Campagna, to the richness of the Villa d'Este, and the Lake of Como. 

The first session of the Summ.er School in Esthetics, Principles and Prac- 
tice in Design and Nonnal Art Instruction, held at the School during the 
month of JulJ^ had an enrollment of twenty-two. The class was composed 
almost entirely of teachers and supervisors of drawing. The course consisted 
of numerous lectures, demonstrations and class work, and the results far 
exceeded expectations. Many new registrations are traceable to the influence 
of m^ embers of this class, and several exhibits have been lent, among which 
is one for the Montana State Convention of Teachers. The class was in 
charge of Mr. Ege, who was assisted by Miss Macfarlane. 

The future development of the Summ.er School depends upon the facilities 
which can be offered by this institution. The Museum's and other collections 
aid the teachers in their demonstrations, and the improved class room at Broad 
and Pine Streets will make the conditions more acceptable. 

Mr. Walter Hunt Everett was obliged to resign from the direction of the 
class in Illustration, owing to the pressure of his personal orders outside, and 
Mr. Thornton Oakley has been appointed to take charge of this work. The 
Associate Committee of Women has provided an adequate class room, by 
tearing out the small apartments above the auditorium and erecting a large 
skj'light, so that for the first time this section will have adequate accommoda- 
tions. So much is due to the energy and financing of this commiittee that 
this represents only a single feature in a long chain of improvements made in 
the school building in the course of a few years. 

The Interior Decoration room has also been extended to contain the whole 
of Mr. Copeland's class, which has grown to large size. The small studio 
pressed into service for the regular class last year will now be used only for 
special advanced members who return as post-graduates and assist Mr. Cope- 
land in his professional orders. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 65 

Miss Driver has accepted the direction of the art work in the schools of 
Pottstown, Pa., and resigned her position here. The death of Mr. Doughty 
during the summer left his position vacant, and it has been filled temporarily 
by the appointment of Mr. Andrade. Mr. Doughty's many years of faithful 
service are marked by the number of his students holding positions in many 
institutions as instructors in mechanical drawing and perspective; and it is 
a striking fact that this fall more applications for teachers of these subjects 
have come to the Business Bureau than in any previous year. 

The arrival of the bronzes and terra cottas purchased in Italy this sum- 
mer with funds given by Mrs. John Harrison, has been delayed by the traffic 
difficulties occasioned by the European war. 

The wrought iron screen by Mr. Yellin, just erected in the J. Pierpont 
Morgan Memorial Art Museum at Hartford, dividing the two galleries, is 
classed not as a mere fixture of the building, but as an art exhibit (a type of 
purchase which the foreign museums appreciate much more than do our own). 
The president has written to Mr. Yellin that the trustees so regard this work, 
which is considered to be the finest example of wrought iron ever produced in 
America. • 

Mr. C. Frederick Clayter, who designed and executed the chalice illus- 
trated in the Annual Report, spent the summer in England doing enameling 
under Mr. H. S. Murphy, of the Central School of Crafts, London (the most 
successful of the present day craftsmen in this work), and has been appointed 
instructor in this subject at the University of Pittsburgh. 

Since the Annual Commencement in June, the Business Bureau of the 
Alumni Association has succeeded in placing many of the graduates in per- 
manent positions. The Bureau has also been active in negotiating, to their 
advantage, transfers of former students, who are now teaching, as well as 
finding employment for undergraduates during the summer months. Several 
of the latter were thus enabled to return to the school to continue their studies. 

Gratifying reports have been received from various firms commending 
the abilitv of the students rccomm.ended. 



I 



PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 



MUSEUM COMMITTEE 

Edgar V. Seeler 
Mrs. W. T. Carter 

W. D. Frishmlth 
John Harrison 
Miss Fannie S. Magee 
Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts 



John Story Jenks, Chairman 
Thomas Skelton Harrison 
John H. McFadden 
John D. McIlhenny 
John T. Morris 
John W. Pepper 

Mrs. Rudolph Blankenburg, Ex-Officio 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 



Edwin AtLee Barber, Director of the Museum 

Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson, Assistant Curator and Lecturer 

HONORARY CURATORS 

Textiles, Lace and Embroidery Mrs. John Harrison 

Oriental Potter}' Mrs. Jones Wister 

European Porcelain Rev. Alfred Duane Pell 

Arms and Armor Cornelius Stevenson 

Furniture and Woodwork Gustav Ketterer 

Musical Instruments .Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth 

Numismatics F. D. Langenheim 

Sculpture, Marbles and Casts Alexander Stirling Calder 



Rodman B. Ellison 
F. K. Hipple 
Nina Lea 
Arthur V. Meigs 
Thomas Roberts 
Joseph F. Sinnott 
C. Shillard Smith 
John Wister 
Jones Wister 
Mrs. Rudolph Blankenburg, Ex-Officio 

ASSOCIATE COMMITTEE OF WOMEN TO THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

President 

Mrs. Rudolph Blankenburg 
First Vice-President Second Vice-President 

Miss Nina Lea Mrs. C. Leland Harrison 



INSTRUCTION 


COMMITTEE 


Theodore C. Search, Chairman 


Mrs. 


Charles Bond 


Mrs. 


Mrs. John Harrison 


Miss 


Thomas Skelton Harrison 


Mrs. 


John Story Jenks 


Mrs. 


John D. McIlhenny 


Mrs. 


Edgar V. Seeler 


Mrs. 


James F. Sullivan 


Mrs. 


William Wood 


Mrs. 



Mrs. 



Secretary 
C. Shillard Smith 



Treasurer 
Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott 



Mrs. Edwin Swift Balch 
Miss Louise W. Bodine 
Mrs. Jasper Yeates Brinton 
Mrs. John H. Brinton 
Mrs. William T. Carter 
Miss Margaret Clyde 
Miss Margaret L. Corlies 
Miss Ada M. Crozer 
Mrs. David E. Dallam 
Mrs. Rodman B. Ellison 
Countess Santa Eulalia 
Miss Cornelia L. Ewing 



Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth Mrs. 

Mrs. W. W. Gibbs Mrs. 

Mrs. Henry S. Grove Mrs. 

Mrs. John Harrison Miss 

Miss M. S. Hinchman Mrs. 

Mrs. F. K. Hipple Miss 

Mrs. J. L. Ketterlinus Mrs. 

Mrs. George G. M. Large Mrs. 

Mrs. Robert R. Logan Mrs. 

Mrs. Howard Longstreth Mrs. 

Miss Fannie S. Magee Mrs. 

Mrs. Arthur V. Meigs Mrs. 

honorary member 
Mrs. M. Hampton Todd 



James Mifflin 
Francis F. Milne 
Charles Platt, 3d 
Elizabeth C. Roberts 
Thomas Roberts 
Mary E. Sinnott 
Cornelius Stevenson 
Edward T. Stotesbury 
William H. Walbaum 
A. B. Weimer 
John Wister 
Jones Wister